Toward a Cooperatively Built Ontology of Knowledge Engineering

Dr Philippe Martin1,   Dr Michel Eboueya2
1: Griffith University,   2: La Rochelle University
e-mail: pm@phmartin.info


My research question: how to organise and share information in an efficient and scalable way?


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Plan


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Need For a Well-Structured Cooperatively-Updated Semantic Network

How should information be written and shared to permit

- Not in informal/formal documents: no/poor conceptual organisation
- Not in a database: predefined, implicit conceptual organisation
- Not in an informal network (topic hierarchy/map): poor conceptual organisation

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Minimal Requirements

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Typical Counter-example: the Semantic Web Topics Ontology of ISWC 2006

RDF+OWL ontology of "topics", "techniques" and "projects", built via Protege and a wiki,
for document indexation purposes.
Extract translated in FL:

Knowledge_Representation
  topic_usesTechnique: neural_networks   heuristic_question_answering,
  topic_usedIn: "library classification" "information processing",
  topic_relatedTo: Knowledge_Discovery,
                   (Artificial_Intelligence
                      topic_supports: Web_Services_Composition,
                      topic_usedIn: "Pattern Recognition" "Computer Vision",
                      topic_subtopic: Machine_Learning);

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Example of Details about Processes

km#KM_task__knowledge_management__KM__knowledge_engineering__KE__conceptual_knowledge_processing__CKP
 supertype: is#information_sciences_task,
 subtype: km#knowledge_comparison  km#knowledge_inference/reasoning/generation
          km#knowledge_validation  km#knowledge_representation
          km#knowledge_retrieval_task  km#knowledge_sharing
          km#knowledge_mapping/merging/federation  km#knowledge_import/export
          km#teaching_a_KM_related_subject
          km#language/structure_specific_task  km#KM_methodology_task,
 object: km#KB;

   km#knowledge_inference/reasoning/generation
    subtype: {km#generalizing  km#specializing}  km#analogy_making
             {km#monotonic_reasoning  km#non_monotonic_reasoning}
             {km#consistent_inference  km#inconsistent_inference}
             {km#complete_inference  km#incomplete_inference}
             {km#structure-only_based_inference  km#rule_based_inference},
    subtask: (km#knowledge_comparison subtype: (km#graph_matching subtype: km#CG_matching));

      km#generalizing__generalization__generalising__generalisation
       subtype:  km#deduction  km#abduction  km#induction;

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Example of Details about Structures

km#KM_structure  supertype: is#symbolic_structure,
 subtype:  {km#base_of_facts/beliefs  km#ontology  km#KB_category  km#KB_statement}
           km#KB  km#KA_model  km#KR_language   km#language_specific_structure;

km#CG_structure  supertype: km#language_specific_structure,
 subtype:  km#CG_statement  km#CG_language;

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Example of Argumentation Structures

"XML is useless for knowledge representation, exchange or storage"
   argument: ("using XML tools for KBSs is a useless additional task"
                 argument: "KBSs do not use XML internally" (pm,
                   objection: "XML can be used for knowledge exchange or storage" (joe,
                     objection: "it is as easy to use other formats for
                                 knowledge exchange or storage" (pm),
                     objection: "a KBS (also) has to use other formats for
                                 knowledge exchange or storage" (pm)))
             )(pm);

"XML can be used for knowledge exchange or storage"
   argument: - "an XML notation permits classic XML tools (parsers, XSLT, ...) to
                be re-used" (pm)
             - "classic XML tools are usable even if a graph-based model is used" (pm),
   argument of: ("a KRL should (also) have an XML notation",
                   specialization: "the Semantic Web KRL should have an XML notation" (pm),
                   specialization of: "a KRL (Knowledge Representation Language)
                                       can have an XML notation" (pm),
                )(pm);

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Annex 1:  Querying

Category querying: WebKB permits to find categories (types or instances) according to their names, creators, relations connected to them, and permits to display all the objects (categories and statements) directly or indirectly connected to them on a single screen. Most other tools impose much more browsing to access information and hence make it difficult to retrieve and compare information in any realistic amount of knowledge.

Category comparison: WebKB permits to find which relations exist between two given categories (this feature is sometimes useful but not very common).

Statement querying: FCG (instead of FL) can be used to express and retrieve statements that are more complex than relations between categories. Various search operators are provided: "spec", "gen", "?" (a combination of "spec" and "gen"), etc.

? [a person, agent of: a sell]

[Ned, agent of: (a sell, object: a car)](pm, 21/2/2001);
[3 cars, object of: (2 sells, agent: Ned, time:21/1/2001)](pm,12/7/2005);
[John, believer of: not [Ned, agent of: a sell]](jj,3/12/2004);

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Annex 2:  Comparing statements in a scalable way

compare pm#WebKB-2 km#Ontolingua on 
     (support of: a is#IR_task, output_language: a km#KR_notation, 
      part: a is#user_interface), maxdepth 5

                                             WebKB-2         Ontolingua 
support of: 
is#IR_task                                      +                 + 
  is#lexical_search                             +                 + 
    is#regular_expression_based_search          +                 . 
  km#knowledge_retrieval_task                   +                 . 
    km#generalization_structural_retrieval      +                 . 
  ...
output_language: 
km#KR_notation                                  +                 + 
  (expressivity: km#FOL)                        +                 + 
    km#FCG                                      +                 . 
    km#KIF                                      .                 + 
  km#XML-based notation                         +                 . 
    km#RDF                                      +                 - 
  ...

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