This document represents information about some layout guidelines. The FL notation is used.
Reminder: statements of the form "CONCEPT1 subtype: CONCEPT2 CONCEPT3"
should be read:
"CONCEPT1 has for subtype CONCEPT2 and CONCEPT3" (in other words, any instance of CONCEPT1 is also an instance of CONCEPT2 and CONCEPT3). For relations other than "subtype" and "supertype", "CONCEPT1 RELATION1: CONCEPT2 CONCEPT3, RELATION2: CONCEPT4;" should be read: "any CONCEPT1 may have for RELATION1 one or many CONCEPT2" and "any CONCEPT1 may have for RELATION1 one or many CONCEPT3" and "any CONCEPT1 may have for RELATION2 one or many CONCEPT4".
Table of contents
designing_the_layout_of_multimedia_documents subtask: making_information_clear using_an_attractive_presentation using_a_consistent_presentation making_the_interface_provide_good_feedback copying_from_existing_documents (s2603498);
making_information_clear subtask: using_a_legible_presentation using_a_simple_presentation_and_language using_a_structured_presentation using_precise_information, #rationale: "the presented information should be clear (legible, simple, structured and precise)";
using_a_legible_presentation subtask: using_a_legible_presentation_for_textual_elements using_redundancy_on_multiple_media_channels; using_a_legible_presentation_for_textual_elements subtask: using_the_right_size_or_font_for_textual_elements limiting_line_length_with_smaller_screen_resolution_in_mind "setting text flush left / unjustified" "using a mix of upper and lower-case letters to promote legibility" "avoiding using hyphens to split words at the end of a line" "using wider margins to increase white space for readability online" (s2589336) "using darker or brighter contrast in small areas" (s2589336); using_the_right_size_or_font_for_textual_elements subtask: "using and big enough fonts" "using size 18-36 point size for headings" "using text sizes larger than 12-point for body text" "using serif for body text and san-serif for titles and headlines" "using fonts that are available for all operating systems" (s2590366); limiting_line_length_with_smaller_screen_resolution_in_mind subtask: "limiting line length to 40-60 characters" "limiting line length to about 11 words per line" (s2589336); using_redundancy_on_multiple_media_channels advantage: "redundancy offered by multiple channels (e.g Sound, Text and Video) improves understanding since more of the information provided is understood" (s2599720) "if redundancy is designed congruently, the flow of the differing channels of the multimedia product is enhanced" (s2603635);
using_a_simple_presentation_and_language subtask: be_sparing_with_textual_elements be_sparing_with_graphical_elements using_a_simple_language; be_sparing_with_textual_elements subtask: "using only two attributes on any one screen (e.g. 2 different variables of style, weight, slant and proportion) heightens readability and recognition through familiarity and consistency"; be_sparing_with_graphical_elements subtask: "using only graphics that are relevant to the task"(s2603678), purpose: "superfluous graphics can interfere with understanding" (s2603412) "faster loading and rendering, easier to scan and to navigate around the website" (s2603498) "pages should load within no more than thirty seconds, including all graphical elements" (s2589336); using_a_simple_language subtask: "stay away from negative statements if possible; avoid double negatives entirely" (s2590366) "making sure correct grammer and spelling are used" (s2603457) avoiding_slang avoiding_technical_term; avoiding_slang #rationale: "unless for a purpose, country-specific language should be avoided, as foreign readers may not understand" (s2603457);
using_a_structured_presentation purpose: "improving cognitive recall by providing order and common characteristics" "providing logical positions for pieces of information and hence helping to locate them, gather them, compare them and check for their completeness and consistency" "allowing to focus on small chunks since they are easier to memorise and exploit", subtask: dividing_information_into_digestible_chunks "keeping paragraphs four to eight lines long" (s2589336) "using headlines, bullets, pull quotes and sidebars" (s2592913) "using contrasting colors to separate groups" (s2603678); dividing_information_into_digestible_chunks subtask: using_spaces_between_chunks_of_information; using_spaces_between_chunks_of_information subtype: "separating paragraphs by a blank line", purpose: "structure allows the reader to find information easily" (s2603678);
using_an_attractive_presentation subtask: designing_so_as_not_to_shock_the_user (s2603457) capturing_and_retaining_attention_on_a_document; designing_so_as_not_to_shock_the_user subtask: "using backgrounds that don't clash/conflict with font colours" (s2603457); capturing_and_retaining_attention_on_a_document subtask: creating_focus_on_the_relevant_document_elements creating_balance_on_a_document "using contrast to stimulate attention on the page" "using heading in larger fonts to gain attention" (s2603678) "using contrasting colors and graphics" (s2603678) "using graphics to focus attention" (s2603678), purpose: "good contrast draws the eye to different sections of the piece" (s2603678); creating_focus_on_the_relevant_document_elements subtask: "using large bold display type and/or graphics to create focus" "using elements with visual weight for focus BUT without overdoing it" "putting items of focus at the top of the page, the area first seen by the user, to get their attention" "using space to separate the element so it is not clustered" (s2603457); creating_balance_on_a_document subtask: using_a_structured_presentation //already detailed above "weighting elements (size, density, page position)" "using tables for more precise placement of elements" "good contrast is needed for balance and organization" (s2603678) "visual entry points is needed for balance and organization" (s2603678), subtype: creating_symmetrical_balance_on_a_document creating_asymmetrical_balance_on_a_document; creating_symmetrical_balance_on_a_document purpose: "providing a conservative, safe atmosphere", annotation: "formal balance is symmetrical, with the items on one side of the screen being similar in shape, size and color to the items on the other side of the screen; formal balance is usually much easier to design" (s2603412); creating_asymmetrical_balance_on_a_document purpose: "providing intense/dynamic compositions", annotation: "informal balance is usually asymmetrical, with several smaller items on one side being balanced by a large item on the other side, or smaller items being placed further away from the center of the screen than larger items" (s2603412) "one darker item may need to be balanced by several lighter items" (s2603412);
using_a_consistent_presentation #rationale: "a consistent approach aids navigation - readers can adapt and predict the location of information and navigation controls" "inconsistency increases cognitive overhead by forcing the user to spend extra time figuring out how to navigate or where to find the information they require" (s2603621), subtask: establishing_a_framework_to_use_throughout_the_pages_of_a_Web_site grouping_objects_with_similar_functions_together_in_one_spot (s2594561) using_proximity_to_connect_elements_visually using_a_style_of_presentation_from_one_section_of_a_sequence_to_the_other (s2603621) using_a_consistency_of_command/action_throughout_a_project (s2603678) "using a grid (a skeletal understructure, needed for cohesiveness)"; establishing_a_framework_to_use_throughout_the_pages_of_a_Web_site subtask: using_a_graphic_theme "align type and graphics on a page and in relation to each other" (s2589336), method: "using Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to help with consistency/unity"; // purpose: "giving all pages a common look and feel" (s2589336); using_proximity_to_connect_elements_visually definition: "putting related elements close together, for example graphics and labels/titles, headings and sub-headings, company name and logo", annotation: "the Gestalt visual principle of proximity states that the eye and mind see objects as belonging together if they are near each other in space"; using_a_style_of_presentation_from_one_section_of_a_sequence_to_the_other object: "orientation information, navigation devices, user input, feedback, operating instructions" (s2590366) "terminology, voice, names of commands and manner of evoking them" (s2603621) "navigation graphics or text, colors and fonts" (s2603678);
making_the_interface_provide_good_feedback subtask: making_the_interface_provide_good_feedback_for_every_user_action, purpose: "usability is increased by providing meaningful feedback to the user to show that an action has been completed, was unable to complete, or has errored" (s2603621);
"the maximum amount of information should be presented in the minimum amount of space" argument: "this reduces scrolling or browsing and hence quickens information retrieval" "this is what most commercial Web sites do", objection: "this goes against clarity (as in 'simple', 'structured and 'precise')", exclusion: "the presented information should be clear (simple, structured and precise)"; "the presented information should be clear (simple, structured and precise)" specialization: "the presented information should be simple" "the presented information should be structured" "the presented information should be precise", argument: "clarity helps understanding"; "the presented information should be simple" specialization: "the presented information should not have superfluous texts/graphics/sounds/..." "technical terms should be avoided" "overabundance of fonts or colors should be avoided"; "the presented information should be structured" specialization: "sections, tables, lists, hierarchies and other structures should be used as much as possible", argument: "structure eases information understanding/memorising and helps manual/automatic information retrieval/re-use"; "the presented information should be precise" specialization: "the presented information should be as precise as possible", argument: "precision helps understanding"; "the presented information should be as precise as possible" specialization: "the most precise terms/structures/notations (hence the most technical ones) should be used"; "the most precise terms/structures/notations (hence the most technical ones) should be used" objection: "technical terms/structures/notations are difficult to understand by non-specialists" "even research articles often use informal formats (e.g., English paragraphs) instead of using more precise and structured format (e.g. the FL format)"; "technical terms/structures/notations are difficult to understand by non-specialists" objection: "technical terms/structures/notations are needed for precision and a genuine understanding (this is why they were invented)" "technical terms/structures/notations can be learned" "statements using non technical terms/structures/notations can be related by specialization relations to statements using technical terms/structures/notations for easing learning and understanding"; "even research articles often use informal formats (e.g., English paragraphs) paragraphs) instead of using more precise and structured format (e.g. the FL format)" objection: "this is true but the consequence is that it is hard to retrieve and compare all the ideas or techniques that are related to any particular problem and hence to assess their originality and value";