Semantic Classification of "Workflow Management" Concepts

The goal of this page is to collect and represent important semantic relations between important concepts of Workflow Management. The representation is semi-formal: the adopted notation (FL) and conventions permit to represent a semantic-network that has a logic-based interpretation but some parts (typically the sentences within quotes) are just strings (their content is in English, not in a notation that machines can understand and exploit). These representations have been loaded into the WebKB-2 knowledge base. Statements are in the courier font. They are enclosed within the XHTML marks <KR> and </KR> to permit WebKB-2 to distinguish them from regular text.   To navigate from one of the categories below, copy-paste its identifier (term with '#' inside) into the following textbox or use the provided hyperlinks. Then, use the search options at the end of each displayed page.


One of the rationales for this page is to permit the quick retrieval of important concepts of Workflow Management and their relationships, and hence help their discovery, comparison, understanding and memorizing. Indeed, in books or articles, these concepts and their relationships are scattered and hidden within hundreds or thousands of sentences, and sometimes presented in very general and fuzzy ways; it is then extremely difficult to remember and correlate all these descriptions in owns head to get a mental picture and understanding of these concepts and their relationships. For example, it is very difficult to realise and remember that, according to the sources used below, "process design" is a subtask of "process redesign" which is a subtask of "business process redesign" which is a subtask of "business process engineering" which is a subtask of "workflow modeling" which is a subtask of "workflow management". It is also difficult to remember the many other subtasks of these tasks. Here, the summarizing and structuring work is done and can be completed by anyone via WebKB-2.

The current main sources for the concepts and relationships represented below are 1) the "Workflow Management" book by Aalst and Hee, and 2) some associated lecture notes. (Click here for the Web site of the book). The terminology of this book follows the one used by the Workflow Management Coalition. We assume that each of those terms has a unique meaning, at least in this document (that is, each term can be used as a concept identifier). The classic ontological distinctions of "process" (action, ...), "agent" (people, organization or software agent) and "tool" (software, method, ...) have been followed.

The notation that is used below follows the schema "CONCEPT1 RELATION1: CONCEPT2 (SOURCE1 INTERPRETER1);" which can be read "According to SOURCE1, interpreted and represented by INTERPRETER1, 'any CONCEPT1 may have for RELATION1 one or many CONCEPT2'". (INTERPRETER1 need not be mentionned if it is the same as SOURCE1 or if no SOURCE1 is directly quoted. Have a quick look below for some examples before continuing to read). It is recommended to use a singular noun (not a verb, nor a plural noun) for the name of a concept or a relation. Here is a more complex but still generic example showing how several relations can be associated to a same concept.

  relation1: concept2 (source1 interpreter1)  concept3 (source2 interpreter2),
  relation2: at least 1 concept5 (source3 interpreter3)
             concept6 (source4 interpreter4),
  relation3: concept7 (source5 interpreter5),
             //"some comment here"(source6 interpreter6) 
  relation4: "some informal statement here"(source7 interpreter7)
             concept8 (source8 interpreter8),
  relation5: {concept9 concept10 concept11}(source9 interpreter9)
             concept12 (source10 interpreter10);
Here is how this example should be read.
Any concept1 may have for relation1 one or many concept2 (according to source1, interpreted/represented by interpreter1) and may have for relation1 one or many concept3 (according to source2, interpreted by interpreter2).
Any concept1 has for relation2 at least 1 concept5 (according to source3, interpreted by interpreter3) and may have for relation2 one or many concept6 (according to source4, interpreted by interpreter4).
Any concept1 may have for relation3 one or many concept7 (according to source5, interpreted by interpreter5); a comment on this is "some comment here" (according to source6, interpreted by interpreter6).
Any concept1 may have for relation4 "some informal statement here" (according to source7, interpreted by interpreter7) and may have for relation4 one or many concept8 (according to source8, interpreted by interpreter8).
Any concept1 may have for relation5 one or many of the exclusive concepts concept9, concept10 and concept11 (according to source9, interpreted by interpreter9) and may have for relation5 one or many concept12 (according to source10, interpreted by interpreter10).

Note: as illustrated above and below, the form "concept1 relation1: concept2 (source1 interpreter1) concept3 (source2 interpreter2);" should be preferred to the form "concept1 relation1: concept2 (source1 interpreter1) relation1: concept3 (source2 interpreter2);" even though these forms are semantically equivalent.
Note the use of ',' to separate relationships of different types, and the use of ';' at the end of all the relationships from a concept. Finally, note the use of expressions such as "at least 1" when the default cardinality ("may be one or many", or in other words, "0 to many") is inadequate, and the use of the keyword "of" to introduce the reverse of a relation (e.g., "employee of:" may be used instead of "employer:"; see the examples below). Since there are more than 65 similar looking examples of relationships from a concept below, the syntax to use should become obvious very quickly.

As noted above, in this document the source of a relation is either the "Workflow Management" book by Aalst and Hee or some lecture notes developped by Rod Learmonth. The identifiers for the lecture notes are wfL2, wfL3, wfL4, etc. The identifier for the book is "wfm" and can be most often left implicit thanks to the first command below. Page numbers are indicated when the book is used as a source, e.g. "p19" (this is an abbreviation; whole sentences from the book could be used instead). The abbreviations "intro" and "glossary" are also used.

user wfm; //"wfm" (the Workflow Management book by Aalst and Hee) is the default source of the relations below
unprefixed terms are key names; //to allow relation names not to be prefixed
default creator: wfm pm wn; //"wfm" is the default creator for the unprefixed relation names below

Table of contents

Domain and object

  subdomain of: #information_science,
  object: is#workflow_management_course  is#workflow_management_related_process 
          is#workflow_related_agent  is#workflow_related_tool  wfm#case;

  is#workflow_management_course  supertype: #course,
   subtype:  gu#3403INT;

    synonym: product ('p31' pm),
    definition: "the particular object of a work"  "what the WFMS is designed to control",
    example: "an insurance claim that is about to be handled"
             "a case has a lifetime (see case_state)"('p31' pm),
    part: at least 1 case_identifier ('p31' pm),
    descr: case_state ('p31' pm); 


  specialization: is#modeled_or_performed_process  is#workflow_modeling_process,
  agent: is#workflow_related_agent;

Modeled or performed process

  annotation: "not a workflow structure but its 'actual performance' or what it models",
  specialization: wfm#business_process  wfm#enactment  wfm#rollback;

    specialization: working_on_a_case ('p3' pm) 
                    {primary_process secondary_process tertiary_process} ('p9' pm)
                    allocating_and_accepting_work ('p11' pm)  process_management ('p19' pm)
                    resource_management (pm),
    synonym: BP ('intro' pm),
    annotation: "in the WFM book, 'business process' and workflow are sometimes used as
        synonyms; they are distinguished here: the first refer to a genuine process while
        the second refers to a data structure"(pm); 

      definition: "a unit of work that can be distinguished from all others"('p3' pm),
      example: "baking bread" ('p3' pm)  "making a bed" ('p3' pm) 
               "designing a house" ('p3' pm),
      object: 1 wfm#case ('p3' pm);
    primary_process    synonym: production_process ('p9' pm);
    secondary_process  synonym: support_process ('p10' pm);
    tertiary_process   synonym: managerial_process ('p10' pm);
      specialization: wfm#assignment ('p11' pm)  wfm#negotiation ('p12' pm);

        definition: "specification stating which tasks must be carried out to complete
           a particular case, in what order and within what timeframe"('glossary'),
        synonym: order ('glossary')  commission ('glossary'),
        source: wfm#principal ('p11' pm),
        destination: contractor ('p11' pm);
        object: contract ('p12' pm)
        method: communications_protocol ('p12' pm),
        representation: contract_tree ('p13' pm);

      specialization: {real-time_management  operational_management
                       tactical_management  strategic_management}('p19' pm)
                      solving_a_decision_problem ('p22' pm),
      part: planning ('p19' pm)  control ('p19' pm)  solving_decision_problems ('p19' pm),
      method: planning_and_control_cycle ('p19' pm),
      tool: WFMS ('p19' pm);
         example: "using reports to revise objectives, preconditions and decisions"('p19' pm);

        example: 'production scheduling' ('p22' pm)  'train routing' ('p22' pm);
        specialization: capacity_planning ('p22' pm)
                        budgeting_for_operational_management ('p22' pm);
        object: structural_aspect_of_processes_and_types_of_resources;
        specialization: 'definition' ('p22' pm)  wfm#creation ('p22' pm)
                        wfm#evaluation ('p22' pm)  wfm#selection ('p22' pm);
    part: wfm#triggering ('p35' pm)  actual_performance_of_a_process ('p35' pm);
      parameter: work_item_trigger ('p35' pm);
      specialization: wfm#activity ('p7' pm);
        definition: "a work_item actually performed by a resource"('p61' pm)
                    "unlike the task it carries out, an activity is related
                     to a specific case"('glossary' pm),
        synonym: task_instance ('glossary')  transition_firing ('glossary') 
                 operation ('glossary'),
        object: 1 wfm#work_item ('p61' pm),
        agent: at least 1 wfm#resource ('p61' pm);
    definition: "a return to a previous state, generally after a system
                 has registered the failure of an activity"('glossary');

Process/method to model business processes

  specialization: workflow_management  workflow_modeling  knowledge_acquisition
                  business_process_engineering  business_process_redesign,
  technique: Critical_Success_Factor_method;

  workflow_management  //click on this category!
    synonym: WFM ('intro' pm),
    part: workflow_modeling ('intro' pm)   workflow_execution ('intro' pm),
    tool: WFMS ('intro' pm),
    object: wfm#workflow ('intro' pm);

      purpose: communicating (wfL1 pm),
      parameter: workflow_theory ('intro' pm),
      object: wfm#workflow ('intro' pm),
      part: knowledge_management (pm)  business_process_engineering (pm);
        part: knowledge_acquisition ('glossary' pm)
              knowledge_enrichment ('p7' pm)  knowledge_distribution ('p7' pm),
        object: knowledge ('p7' pm);

        purpose: "identifying what and how to improve an enterprise process"(wfL2 pm),
        part: identification_of_system_components (wfL2 pm)
              resource_identification (wfL2 pm)   applying_the_CSF_method (wfL2 pm)
              workflow_analysis (wfL6 pm)  wfm#business_process_redesign (wfL2 pm);
          specialization: WSF_application (wfL2 pm);
            purpose: "pleasing the customers"(wfL2 pm) 
                     "performing the work efficiently"(wfL2 pm)
                     "serving the participants"(wfL2 pm)
                     "creating value from information"(wfL2 pm)
                     "minimising effort consumed by technology"(wfL2 pm)
                     "deploying infrastructure as a genuine resource"(wfL2 pm)
                     "minimising unintended conflicts and risks"(wfL2 pm),
            parameter: WSF(wfL2 pm),
            object: work_system (wfL2 pm);
          part: wfm#qualitative_analysis (cm)  wfm#quantitative_analysis (cm);
            part: wfm#reachability_analysis (cm)  wfm#structural_analysis ('p103' cm),
            purpose: "focusing on the logical correctness of the defined process" (cm),
            example: "searching for possible deadlocks" (cm)
                     "searching how to handle a specific case" (cm)
                     "searching if will all cases terminate eventually" (cm)
                     "searching if it possible to execute two tasks in any order" (cm);
              purpose: "ensuring that all places in a net are reached correctly
                        (based on firing from the starting place)" (cm),
              tool: wfm#reachability_graph (cm);
              parameter: wfm#soundness ('p107' pm)  wfm#liveness (pm)  wfm#boundedness (pm)
                         wfm#safety (pm),
              part: assessing_the_accuracy_of_a_defined_process (cm)
                    defining_the_soundness_of_a_process (cm);
                part: identifying_tasks_without_input_or_output_conditions (cm)
                      assessing_dead_tasks (cm)  identifying_deadlocks (cm)
                      reviewing_livelocks (cm)
                      analysing_activities_in_place_after_end_condition_is_reached (cm)
                      assessing_tokens_in_the_process_after_the_case_is_completed (cm);
                 tool: reachability_graph (cm)  additional_transition_t* (cm)   
                       library_method_for_defining_the_soundness_of_a_process (cm);
            part: wfm#performance_analysis ('p118' cm)  wfm#capacity_planning (cm),
            purpose: "concentrating on the performance of the defined process" (cm),
            example: "searching how many cases can be handled in one hour" (cm)
                     "searching what is the average throughput time" (cm)
                     "searching how many extra resources are required" (cm)
                     "searching how many cases are handled within two days" (cm);
              purpose: improving_the_routing_path (cm)   minimising_process_time (cm)
                       optimising_resource_time (cm),
              specialisation: simulation (cm)   queuing_theory (cm)   
                              markovian_analysis (cm),
              part: wfm#sequential_analysis (cm)   wfm#parallel_analysis (cm)   
                    wfm#composition_analysis (cm)  wfm#flexibilisation_analysis (cm)   
                    wfm#triage_analysis (cm)   wfm#prioritisation_analysis (cm);
                object: wfm#triage (cm);
              purpose: "to calculate what capacity is required to handle a given
                        number of cases" (cm),
              part: calculating_capacity_per_task (cm)   
                    calculating_requirement_per_resource_class (cm)
                    taking_variability_into_account (cm);
                 requirement: "average number of cases per day per task" (cm)
                        "average processing time per task" (cm)
                        "average number of minutes per task" (cm);
          definition: "reengineering of a process to reduce cost, increase 
                       the value of the product or service to the client and 
                       reduce the time to market or the time for delivery"(wfL2 pm),
          synonym: business_process_reengineering ('intro' pm)  BPR ('intro' pm),
          method of: "improving the effectiveness and efficiency of BPs" ('intro' pm),
          agent: organizational_expert ('intro' pm)  business_expert ('intro' pm)
                 IT_person ('intro' pm)  business_unit ('intro' pm),
          part: process_diagnosis (wfL2 pm)  process_redesign (wfL2 pm) 
                process_reconstruction (wfL2 pm)  process_evaluation (wfL2 pm);
            part: wfm#process_design (pm)  wfm#resource_classification ('p91' pm)
                  wfm#allocating_activities_to_tasks ('p91' pm),
            requirement: "ensuring management commitment"(wfL2 pm)
                         "limiting the scope of change"(wfL2 pm)
                         "ensuring continuity and consistency"(wfL2 pm)
                         "measuring performance before & after the redesign"(wfL2 pm)
                         "getting the right teams for BPR 	projects"(wfL2 pm)
                         "using appropriate tools and methods"(wfL2 pm)
                         "borrowing the best ideas you can find"(wfL2 pm)
                         "questioning the value of every part of the business process"(wfL2 pm)
                         "keeping employees informed"(wfL2 pm)
                         "using IT as an enabler NOT as the driving force"(wfL2 pm)
                         "getting early success wherever possible"(wfL2 pm)
                         "freezing the process redesign before starting implementation"(wfL2 pm)
                         "conducting pilot operations before full implementation"(wfL2 pm)
                         "maintaining product/service quality"(wfL2 pm)
                         "always keeping the customer in mind"(wfL2 pm)
                         "not starting with the solution in mind"(wfL2 pm)
                         "being open to new ideas"(wfL2 pm);
              part: establishing_the_objective_of_the_process ('p91' pm)
                    ignoring_the_existence_of_resources_when_definining_a_process ('p91' pm)
                    checking_the_need_for_each-tack ('p92' pm)
                    consider_the_scope_of_tasks ('p92' pm)
                    striving_for_the_simplest_possible_process ('p93' pm)
                    weighting_a_generic_process_versus_many_versions_of_a_same_process ('p93' pm)
                    weighting_specialization_versus_generalization ('p93' pm)
                    whenever_possible_trying_to_achieve_parallel_processing_of_tasks ('p93' pm)
                    investigating_new_opportunities_opened_up_by_technical_progress ('p93' pm);
              part: whenever_possible_making_one_person_responsible_for_a_case ('p91' pm)
                    treating_geographically_scattered_as_if_they_are_centralised ('p94' pm);
              part: allowing_a_resource_to_practice_its_specialty ('p94' pm)
                    allowing_a_resource_to_perform_similar_tasks_in_succession('p94' pm)
                    trying_to_achieve_as_much_flexibility_for_the_near_future ('p94' pm)
                    allowing_a_resource_to_work_as_much_as_possible_on_the_same_case ('p94' pm);

            parameter: process_characteristic (wfL2 pm)
                       process_performance_variable (wfL2 pm), 
            annotation: "for each process and each performance variable, the value for the
                         current system and each solution should be given"(wfL2 pm);

    synonym: CSF_method (wfL2 pm),
    definition: "approach for identifying factors critical to a
                 business operation's success"(wfL2 pm),
    agent: executive (wfL2 pm),
    object: CSF (wfL2 pm),
    technique of: applying_the_CSF_method (wfL2 pm), 
    part: "identifying the organisation's primary mission and the objectives 
           that define satisfactory overall performance"(wfL2 pm)
          "identifying CSF"(wfL2 pm)
          "identifying pertinent indicators or measures of performance for
           each CSF"(wfL2 pm)
          "deciding which measures are most important and then make sure that
           IS plans provide means for collecting and using this information"(wfL2 pm);


  specialisation: methodology_related_property_or_variable;

Methodology-related variable

  specialisation: CSF  Work_System_Framework 
                  wfm#process_characteristic  wfm#process_performance_variable;

    synonym: critical_success_factor (wfL2 pm),
    definition: "quantifiable (i.e., measurable) factors critical to the
                 success of a business or a business process"(wfL2 pm);
    synonym: WSF (wfL2 pm),
    definition: "set of elements useful to decompose a work system
                 and possibly its IS support"(wfL2 pm),
    part: WSF_element (wfL2 pm);
      specialisation: WSF_system_purpose (wfL2 pm)  WSF_involved_processes (wfL2 pm)
                      WSF_involved_people (wfL2 pm)  WSF_involved_product/service (wfL2 pm)
                      WSF_involved_process (wfL2 pm)  WSF_involved_information (wfL2 pm)
                      WSF_involved_technology (wfL2 pm)  WSF_context (wfL2 pm)
                      WSF_infrastructure (wfL2 pm);
        definition: "activities performed within the work system"(wfL2 pm);
        specialisation: WSF_involved_customer (wfL2 pm)  WSF_involved_participant (wfL2 pm);
        definition: "information used by the participants or the system"(wfL2 pm);
        definition: "environmental factors that could impact on the system;
                            e.g., competitive, technical, regulatory"(wfL2 pm);
        definition: "human and technical resources outside the control of
                     the work system and that it utilises or that can impact
                     on it, e.g. shared databases, networks, staff training, etc."(wfL2 pm);

    specialization: process_degree_of_structure (wfL2 pm) 
                    process_range_of_involvement (wfL2 pm)
                    process_level_of_integration (wfL2 pm)
                    process_rhythm/predicability (wfL2 pm)
                    process_complexity (wfL2 pm)  process_reliance_on_machines (wfL2 pm)
                    process_prominence_of_planning_and_control (wfL2 pm)
                    process_attention_to_errors_and_exceptions (wfL2 pm);

      specialization: process_level_of_integration_on_common_culture (wfL2 pm)
                      process_level_of_integration_on_common_standards (wfL2 pm)
                      process_level_of_integration_on_information sharing (wfL2 pm)
                      process_level_of_integration_on_coordination (wfL2 pm)
                      process_level_of_integration_on_collaboration (wfL2 pm);
    specialization: process_activity_rate (wfL2 pm)  process_output_rate (wfL2 pm)
                    process_consistency (wfL2 pm)  process_productivity (wfL2 pm)
                    process_cycle_time (wfL2 pm)  process_downtime (wfL2 pm)
                    process_security (wfL2 pm);

Data structure

  specialization: case_description  process_description   
                  knowledge  work_system  reachability_graph  audit_trail  organizational_chart;

Case description

  specialization: case_state ('p31' pm)  case_attribute ('p31' pm)  case_condition ('p31' pm)
                  work_item_trigger ('p35' pm)  wfm#procedure ('p33' pm)
                  workflow_definition  process_diagram; 

    definition: "a category of cases"('p31' pm),
    instance: 1 wfm#case ('p31' pm),
    characteristic: case_attribute ('p31' pm);

    definition: "a description of the case betweeen its appearance and
                 disappearance"('p31' pm),
    part: case_content ('p31' pm)   at least 1 case_attribute ('p31' pm)
          at least 1 case_condition ('p31' pm);

    synonym: phase ('p32' pm),
    descr: Petri-net_place (pm); 

    specialization: automatic_work_item_trigger ('p35' pm)
                    resource_initiated_work_item_trigger ('p35' pm)
                    external_work_item_trigger ('p35' pm)
                    time_based_item_trigger ('p35' pm);

    definition: "a generic piece of work; can be seen as the description of activities"('p3' pm),
    specialization: wfm#workflow ('p33' pm);

      definition: "a procedure for a particular case type"('p33' pm)
                  "a collection of cases, resources and triggers
                   representing a particular process"('glossary' pm),
      synonym: workflow_process ('p22' pm)  WF ('intro' pm)  network_of_task ('p22' pm),
      specialization: ad-hoc_workflow ('glossary' pm)  wfm#project ('p9' pm)  wfm#task ('p32' pm),
      agent: wfm#resource ('p11' pm),
//    part: wfm#workflow ('p34' pm),
      annotation: "a (sub)process with no sub-processes is a task"('p34' pm),
      descr: at least 1 wfm#condition ('p15' pm)  wfm#process_diagram ('p15' pm),
      annotation: "both the process_diagram and the conditions associated to some processes
                   determine the order in which the processes are executed"('p15' pm),
      object: at least 1 case ('p33' pm),
      characteristic: complexity ('p18' pm),
      annotation: "the higher the tasks depends on the case, the higher the complexity"('p18' pm); 

        definition: "workflow modified for a specific case"('glossary' pm);
        definition: "a process for only one case"('p9' pm),
        object: 1 case ('p9' pm);

        synonym: atomic_process ('p32' pm)  logical_unit_of_work ('p32' pm),
        definition: "when a process is considered indivisible by an actor,
            in the eye of this actor, it is a 'task': this actor does not see or care
            about the possible decomposition of the task into sub-processes",
        annotation: "if a task is not performed entirely by a resource, a rollback may
            have to be done by the resource so that the task can be performed again"
                    "a task can be performed by several resources but only one is
             responsible for it"('p32' pm),
        specialization: work_item ('p33' pm)  {manual_task  automatic_task}('p33' pm)
                        semi-automatic_task ('p32' pm),
        example: "typing a letter" ('p32' pm)  "stamping a document" ('p32' pm),
        responsible_agent: 1 wfm#resource ('p32' pm),
        parameter: knowledge ('p7' pm); 
          definition: "a task for a particular case"('p33' pm);
    part: process_definition (wfL4 pm)  resource_classification (wfL4 pm)
          resource_management_rule (wfL4 pm);
    specialization: Petri-net,
    part: routing_structure ('p34' pm)  Petri-net_component;
      specialization: sequence_structure ('p34' pm)  selection_structure ('p34' pm)
                      parallelisation_structure ('p34' pm)
                      synchonisation_structure ('p34' pm)  iteration_structure ('p34' pm);
        synonym:  parallel_routing_structure ('p34' pm),
        specialization: AND-split ('p34' pm)  AND-join ('p34' pm);
        synonym: selective_routing_structure ('p34' pm) ,
        specialization: OR-split ('p34' pm)  OR-join ('p34' pm);
        specialization: AND-join ('p34' pm)  OR-join ('p34' pm);

      specialization: wfm#place  wfm#transition  wfm#token;

        synonym: Petri-net_condition ('glossary'),
        specialization: wfm#input_place ('p37' pm)  wfm#output_place ('p37' pm),
        part: Petri-net_token ('p37' pm);

        specialization: enabled_transition ('p37' pm);

        part: wfm#time_stamp ('p45' pm); 

      synonym: P/T net ('glossary' pm),
      specialisation: basic_Petri-net (pm)  high_level_Petri-net ('p41' pm)
                      WF-net ('p271' pm),
      part: at least 1 Petri-net_place ('p37' pm)  
            at least 1 Petri-net_transition ('p37' pm),
      tool: Petri-net_based_tool (pm);

        part: color_extension ('p41' pm)  time_extension ('p41' pm)
              hierarchical_extension ('p41' pm);

        synonym: workflow_net ('glossary' pm),
        generalization: workflow ('p271' pm),
        specialization: free-choice_WF-net ('p277' pm)
                        well-structured_WF-net ('p279' pm)
                        S-coverable_WF-net ('p284' pm);

Other structure

  specialization: {tacit_knowledge  explicit_knowledge}('p7' pm);

  definition: "collection of interactive components (subsystems) that
               work together to achieve a defined outcome"(wfL1 pm);

  part: wfm#node (cm)  wfm#directed_arrow (cm)  wfm#predetermined_choice (cm) 
        wfm#non_deterministic_choice (cm)  wfm#end_state (cm);

  definition: "electronic archive recording the history of a workflow, e.g.
               the starting time, the tasks performed and resources allocated"('glossary'),
  synonym: log_file ('glossary')  trace ('glossary');


  specialization: Workflow_Management_Coalition  wfm#resource  wfm#organizational_structure;

     synonym: WFMC ('intro' pm),
     purpose: "developing standard terminology and standard interfaces 
               for WFMS components" ('intro' pm),

    synonym: agent ('glossary' pm)  actor ('glossary' pm)  player ('glossary'),
    definition: "one or several person(s) or machine/program(s) assigning
                 or performing a process"('p11' pm),
    specialization: wfm#principal ('p11' pm)  wfm#contractor ('p11' pm)  wfm#manager ('p11' pm)
                    wfm#system ('p17' pm)  wfm#business_unit ('p17' pm),
    agent of: wfm#negotiation ('p11' pm),
    characteristic: wfm#role ('p15' pm);

        definition: "an actor that gives an assignment"('p11' pm),
        specialization: wfm#boss ('p11' pm)  wfm#customer ('p11' pm);
          specialization: manager ('p11' pm);
            specialization: functional_boss ('p17' pm)  case_manager ('p18' pm),
            characteristic: span_of_control ('p17' pm);

        definition: "a resource responsible for a process and carrying out
                     the activities ordered by the principal; a contractor may act as
                     a principal by subcontracting other resources"('glossary'),
        specialization: wfm#co-maker ('p19' pm)  wfm#outsourcer ('p19' pm),
        member of: resource_class ('p79' pm);
          specialization: wfm#role ('p80' pm)  wfm#organizational_unit ('p80' pm);

            synonym: function ('p15' pm)  qualification ('p15' pm);
        definition: "people, machine or computerized information system
                     carrying out particular processes"('p19' pm),
        annotation: "system seems a specialization of agent but I am not sure
                     of the difference"(pm),
        specialization: management_system ('p19' pm)  managed_system ('p19' pm),
        part: management_system ('p19' pm)  managed_system ('p19' pm);
//      part of: managed_system ('p19' pm);
          specialization: enactement_system ('p19' pm);
        definition: "agent producing a limited range of product in an efficient way"('p2' pm);
    specialization: wfm#hierarchical_organization ('p15' pm)  wfm#matrix_organization ('p15' pm)
                    wfm#network_organization ('p15' pm);
        part: capacity_group ('p16' pm)  functional_department ('p17' pm)
              process_department ('p17' pm)  production_department ('p17' pm),
        descr: organizational_chart ('p15' pm);
        synonym: virtual_organization ('p18' pm);


  subtype: is#information_system  is#workflow_theory;
    synonym: IS ('p23' pm),
//  generalization: #software ('p23' pm),
    specialization: #data_system (pm)  computer ('p23' pm)  office_IS ('p23' pm)
                    transaction-processing_system ('p23' pm)
                    workflow_definition_tool ('p151' pm)
                    operational_management_tool (wfL7 pm)
                    recording_and_reporting_tool (wfL7 pm)
                    BPR_tool (pm)  workflow_management_system ('p23' pm) 
                    Petri-net_based_tool (pm)
                    knowledge_management_system ('p24' pm)
                    decision_support_system ('p24' pm)  control_system ('p24' pm),
    characteristic: interoperability_with_other_IS ('glossary');
      specialization: interorganizational_IS ('p23' pm);
      instance: Protos ('p189' pm);
        definition: "a BPR-tool which facilitates the modeling and 
                     distribution of workflow models"('glossary'),
      definition: "software package that can be used to support the definition, 
                   management and execution of workflow processes"('intro' pm)
                  "evolving as the connecting mechanism (or 'bridge') between
                   work and computer applications"(wfL1 pm),
      synonym: WFMS ('intro' pm),
      specialization: action_WFMS ('glossary' pm)  ad-hoc_WFMS ('glossary' pm)
                      Petri-net_based_WFMS ('p37' pm),
      instance: Staffware ('p173' pm),
      part: workflow_engine ('glossary'),
      purpose: "insuring that the right information reaches the right agent
                (person or computer application) at the right time" ('intro' pm)
               "separation of processes, resources and applications"(wfL1 pm)
               "focus on the logistics of work processes, not on the contents of
                individual tasks"(wfL1 pm)
               "be better process aware than GroupWare (e.g., Lotus Notes)"(wfL1 pm),
      not purpose: "performing any task in a process
                    (hence, application software is usually also needed)" ('intro' pm);
        definition: "WFMS which concentrates upon the co-ordination of people"('glossary' pm);
        instance: InConcert ('p195' pm);
      specialization: Petri-net_based_WFMS (pm)  Petri-net_based_workflow_analyser (pm)
                      Petri-net_based_simulation_tool (pm)  Petri-net_editor (pm);
        instance: COSA ('p180' pm);
        instance: Woflan ('p185' pm)  PIPE (pm);
        instance: ExSpect ('glossary');
        instance: PIPE (pm);
    specialization: Petri-net_theory ('intro' pm),
    object: Petri-net ('intro' pm);