Semantic Classification of Multimedia Resources

This document represents information about multimedia resources. Griffith Uni's multimedia course has been used as a source. The FL notation is used.

These representations have been loaded into the WebKB-2 knowledge base. Statements are in the courier font. They are enclosed within the XHTML marks <KR> and </KR> to permit WebKB-2 to distinguish them from regular text.   To browse from one of the categories below, copy-paste its identifier (term with '#' inside) into the following textbox or use the provided hyperlinks. Then, use the search options at the end of each displayed page.
   

Reminder: statements of the form "CONCEPT1 subtype: CONCEPT2 CONCEPT3" should be read:
"CONCEPT1 has for subtype CONCEPT2 and CONCEPT3" (in other words, any instance of CONCEPT1 is also an instance of CONCEPT2 and CONCEPT3). For relations other than "subtype" and "supertype", "CONCEPT1 RELATION1: CONCEPT2 CONCEPT3, RELATION2: CONCEPT4;" should be read: "any CONCEPT1 may have for RELATION1 one or many CONCEPT2" and "any CONCEPT1 may have for RELATION1 one or many CONCEPT3" and "any CONCEPT1 may have for RELATION2 one or many CONCEPT4".


Table of contents

user is;  //"is" is the default author of the relations below
unprefixed terms are key names; //to allow relation names not to be prefixed
default creator: pm; //"pm" is the creator for the unprefixed relation names below



Domains and Objects

is#multimedia_domain__multimedia
 subdomain of: #information_science,
 object: is#multimedia_course  is#3D_object  is#media_object  is#flowchart
         is#multimedia_related_process
         is#multimedia_development_process_agent
         is#multimedia_structure  is#multimedia_tool ;

  is#multimedia_course   supertype: #course,   subtype: gu#1017INT;


  is#3D_object  supertype: pm#3D_object,
   subtype: is#3D_object_with_a_special_shape;

    is#3D_object_with_a_special_shape  supertype: pm#thing_with_a_special_shape,
     subtype: #sphere #cube #cylinder.solid #cone_shape #pyramid.polyhedron  #torus
              #tube  #hemisphere.subfigure;                 

  is#media_object  definition: "text, sound, still image, animated image, or a
                                composition of these objects",
   supertype: #transmission  pm#document_element,
   subtype: {is#digital_media_object  is#analog_media_object}  is#multimedia_object
            {is#textual_media_object__text  is#non-textual_media_object}
            {is#2D_media_object  is#3D_media_object}
            {is#animated_media_object  is#non-animated_media_object};

    is#multimedia_object__multimedia_data__multimedia_element
     part: is#media_object;

      is#digital_media_object supertype: #digital_communication;

    is#non-textual_media_object
     subtype: {is#graphical_media_object  is#audio_media_object__audio};

      is#graphical_media_object__graphics  subtype: #image;

       #image  subtype: is#still_image #computer_graphics;

        is#still_image  subtype: is#interlaced_image;

         is#interlaced_image  pm#descr: "resolution improves as it downloads";

        #computer_graphics
         annotation: "generated by a scanner, digital_camera, frame_grabber or
                      more generally by  graphics software/language";

    is#non-animated_media_object  subtype: is#still_image;

    is#animated_media_object__animation
     subtype: is#moving_picture;

      is#moving_picture
       subtype: is#video_media__video,
       part: 2..* is#still_image;  //at least 2 is#still_image;

        is#video_media__video  subtype: #video.visual_communication;


  is#flowchart
   supertype: #chart,
   subtype: is#storyboard__content_flowchart,
   definition: "an organised sequence of possibilities/events",
   use: "as a plan" "chain of cause and effect (explaining a process)" 
        "recount of past events in a time sequence" 
        "series of steps (instructions); a sequence of reasons (forming an argument)"
        "focuses on movement through a system";

    is#storyboard__content_flowchart 
     definition: "blueprint of a specific instance or a key frame that contains precise yet
                  comprehensive and clear explanations of every element of the snapshot",
     use: "sound/video designers and multimedia developers use the storyboards as 
           the model to produce the final multimedia product"
          "storyboards should include geometric information about the objects used and 
           appropriate detail and explanations about the media elements (eg. sound,
           text, video, background, etc.)"
          "ensure that each storyboard is identified in the flowchart (i.e. a connection
           from each storyboard to each storyboard accessible from that storyboard 
           indicating the conditions and purpose of the link)"
          "allows detailed illustration of the contents of each element"
          "a blueprint - shows all the important keyframes, etc."
          "a visual script designed to make it easier to see the outcome"
          "used primarily in film making to design individual shots before filming"
          "also common in comic strip, animation, TV commercials, and multimedia design";


Properties, Measures, Models and Laws

is#transmission_speed  supertype: #rate;
is#transmission_speed  measure: #bits_per_second;

is#sound_amplitude  supertype: #sound_property_or_value;  
is#sound_amplitude definition: "loudness, generally measured in decibels (dB)",
                   measure: #sound_unit;

is#digitisation_parameter
 supertype: pm#process_attribute_or_quality_or_measure, 
 subtype: is#quantisation_level  is#bitrate  #sampling_frequency;

   is#quantisation_level
    definition: "the number of levels to which a signal is quantised",
    annotation: "the more quantisation levels, the less space needed but the less
                  information (fine distinctions e.g. between colors) can be lost
                  and hence the less undesirable noise";

   is#bitrate__bit-rate  supertype: #rate,
    annotation: "with audio compression, the average amount of data required to 
                 store one second of music expressed in kilobits per second, or Kbps"
                "as bitrate decreases, so does the sound quality",
    subtype: is#variable_bitrate;
    
     is#variable_bitrate__VBR
      annotation: "encoding assigns more bits to complexly detailed passages in the 
                   original source, and fewer bits to the simpler passages"
                  "with MP3_Pro, the high-frequency portion of the audio signal is
                   handled by an advanced and extremely efficient coding process known
                   as Spectral Band Replication (SBR) while the rest of the signal is
                   encoded using the same process as in regular MP3";

   #sampling_frequency  supertype: #sampling_rate,
    definition: "the number of samples in a fixed amount of time or space",
    annotation: "sampling rates for CD Sampling rates for CD-ROM quality ROM quality
                  are approximatively 44.1 kHz (kilo Hertz), that is the sound will have
                  been sampled 44100 times each second"
                "the higher, the better approximation but the more disc space needed",
    subtype: #audio_frequency #Nyquist_rate,
    object of: is#Nyquist's_theorem;

     #audio_frequency = #pitch.sound,  name: sound_frequency,
      definition: "the number of samples in a unit, e.g. for sound: number of 
                   oscillations per second -> n Hz";

     is#Nyquist's_theorem  supertype: #theorem;
     is#Nyquist's_theorem
      definition: "an analog signal waveform can be reconstructed, without error, 
                   from samples taken at equal time intervals if the sampling rate is 
                   equal to, or greater than, twice the highest frequency",
      example: "for a wheel rotating 360 degrees per second, one should see at least 2
                motions in each cycle, otherwise, the wheel may appear to rotate backwards";

     #Nyquist_rate
      annotation: "a bandwidth-limited signal can be fully reconstructed from its 
                   samples, if the sampling rate is at least twice of the highest
                   frequency in the signal (2 highest frequency in the signal",
      object of: #sampling_frequency;


is#frame_rate supertype: #rate,
 annotation: "15 fps is the minimum to achieve smooth motion";

is#image_transparency supertype: #transparence,
 definition: "other colours show through";

is#image_redundancy  supertype: #redundance,
 subtype: is#spatial_image_redundancy is#spectral_image_redundancy;

  is#spatial_image_redundancy  annotation: "correlation between neighbouring pixel values";
  is#spectral_image_redundancy annotation: "correlation between different colour planes";
     
is#trichromatic_theory_of_colour supertype: #theory,
 annotation: "any colour can be created by a combination of the three primary colours";

is#colour_model < #theoretical_account,
 subtype: is#additive_colour_model  is#substractive_colour_model  is#HSV/HSI_colour_model;

   is#additive_colour_model
    subtype: is#RGB_colour_model;

      is#RGB_colour_model__RGB
       annotation: "the primary colors are: Red, Green and Blue"
                   "Red + Blue = Magenta (pink violet)"
                   "Green + Blue = Cyan (light blue)"
                   "adding the three in equal portions yields white"
                   "RED=(255,0,0). White=(255,255,255). Black=(0,0,0)  255=100%",
       use: "TV and computer monitors use this model: RGB Monitor",
        subtype: is#RGBA_colour_model;

         is#RGBA_colour_model__RGBA
          annotation: "32bits colour system"
           "colour depth of 24 bit for colour: 1 byte each for red, green and blue
             -> 2MB of VRAM"
           "1 byte for alpha transparency in each pixel; alpha channel (black/white)"
           "16,777,216 possible colour combinations (human eyes can discern the 
            10,000,000 colours)"
           "to convert an image to indexed colour, all the original colours are 
            converted to the most similar palette colour";

   is#subtractive_colour_model supertype: #theoretical_account,
    annotation: "the eye sees only what is left after the other light has been absorbed"
                "colours result from reflected light",
    use: "used for printing, based on the S1 CMYK colour model",
     subtype: is#CMYK_colour_model__RGBA;

      is#CMYK_colour_model 
       annotation: "CMYK stands for cyan (light blue), magenta (pink violet) and yellow
                    which, mixed together, form black (K)";  //BRY model=RYB model??

   is#HSV/HSI_colour_model
    annotation: "HSV/HSI: Hue(color), Saturation/Intensity (tint), Value(light/dark)",
    member: #hue #chroma is#color_intensity/brightness/luminance/value;

     #hue annotation: "colour being described";
     #chroma annotation: "tint/purity of a colour; high/low -> intense/washed out";
     is#color_intensity/brightness/luminance/value supertype: #luminosity,
      annotation: "from 0 (black) to 1 (white)";

//Colour_Look_Up_Table__CLUT__colour_table__colour_map__colour_palette
//Colour map colours may be 16, 24 or 32 bit.  PNG, BMP, TGA and TIFF. 
//8 bit indexed colour -> Colour map has 256 entries maximum


#resolution.physical_phenomenon 
 annotation: "how precisely a device approximates images using finite pixels",
 subtype: is#device_resolution_for_printers_and_scanners
   is#device_resolution_for_display_devices  is#image_resolution;

   is#device_resolution_for_printers_and_scanners
    annotation: "defined as: the number of Dots Per Inch (dpi)"
                "most desktop printers: 600 dpi"
                "Image-setters: between 1200 - 2400 dpi"
                "flatbed scanners: 300 - 3600 dpi"
                "drum scanners and transparency scanners: higher resolutions",
    subtype: is#sample_per_inch__SPI  is#dot_per_inch;

     is#sample_per_inch__SPI 
      annotation: "a measure of scanner and digital image resolution";

     is#dot_per_inch__DPI
      annotation: "the higher the DPI, the smoother the image will appear";

   is#device_resolution_for_display_devices
    annotation: "screen (Video) resolution = number of pixels in a horizontal
                 scan-line * the number of scan-lines"
                "640 by 480, 800 by 600 and 1024 by 768"
                "pixel dimensions of a screen - depends on resolution of the 
                 output device; in general:
                 physical dimensions of image = pixel dimension/device resolution
                 where device resolution is measured in pixels per unit of length";

   is#image_resolution 
    annotation: "an array of pixel values"
                "bitmapped images have no physical dimensions: independent of
                 device/display resolution"
                "physical size of image depends on the resolution of output device
                 (most monitors display at 72 dpi"
                "to maintain natural image size, image formats record the image resolution",
    subtype: is#pixel_per_inch__PPI;

     is#pixel_per_inch__PPI annotation: "most monitors use 72 PPI or 72 DPI";

is#advantage_of_multimedia/Web_publishing  supertype: #advantage,
 subtype: #seasonableness  is#interactivity is#reduced_production_cost  
          is#prompt_cost-effective_distribution;


Processes, Tasks, Techniques and Methodologies

is#multimedia_related_process
 supertype: pm#process_playing_some_role,
 subtype: is#multimedia_related_technique   is#multimedia_related_task
          is#digital_animation_subtask  is#2D_animation_subtask
          is#3D_animation_subtask;

  is#multimedia_related_technique
   supertype: pm#problem_solving_method,
   subtype: is#DCT_compression  is#RLE_compression  is#Huffman_compression
            is#3D_go  is#LZW_compression  is#3D_morphing  is#3D_warping 
            is#backface_culling;

  is#multimedia_related_task
   supertype: is#information_sciences_task,
   subtype: is#multimedia_interaction  is#teaching_multimedia  is#convolution
            is#multimedia_handling is#multimedia_development_process
            is#animation  is#designing_the_layout_of_multimedia_documents,
   object: is#digital_media_object;
  
    is#multimedia_interaction__multimedia
     definition: "the use of several different media to convey/receive information",
     subtype: {(is#interactive_multimedia_interaction
                is#non-interactive_multimedia_interaction)};

    is#teaching_multimedia  supertype: is#teaching_an_IS_related_subject,
     object: is#multimedia_course;

    is#convolution 
     definition: "a mathematical way of combining two signals to form a third signal",
     subtype: is#Fourier_convolution;
  
      is#Fourier_convolution__Fourier_transformation
       definition: "a family of mathematical techniques based on decomposing signals
                    into sinusoids",
       input: #signal,  output: #signal; //+ Impulse response
  
    is#multimedia_handling
     definition: "creating, storing or using digital multimedia objects",
     subtype: is#multimedia_creation  is#multimedia_storage
              is#digital_signal_processing__DSP
              is#sound_editing  is#image_compression  is#2D_image_editing
              is#3D_image_editing;
  
      is#multimedia_creation__multimedia_production__multimedia_development
       result: is#multimedia_object;
  
      is#digital_signal_processing__DSP
       subtype: is#digitisation_filtering  is#analog-to-digital_conversion
                is#digital-to-analog_conversion__DAC
                is#sampling  is#quantisation  is#dithering,
       object: #signal;
  
       is#digitisation_filtering
        use: "to remove noise, sharpen and smooth images and sounds"
             "to provide special effects",
        technique: "removing or adding certain frequencies";
  
       is#analog-to-digital_conversion__ADC__digitisation
        use: "converting analog to digital at certain intervals",
        subtask: is#sampling  is#quantisation  is#digitisation_filtering,
        result: is#digitised_signal;
  
         is#quantisation definition: "restriction of values to a fixed set of levels",
          subtype: is#8-bit_quantisation,
          parameter: is#quantisation_level;
              
           is#8-bit_quantisation  definition: "quantisation with 256 levels";
  
         is#sampling
          definition: "measuring the signal's value at discrete intervals",
          parameter: #sampling_rate,
          subtype: is#image_oversampling;
  
           is#image_oversampling
            annotation: "sampling images at a higher resolution than that to be displayed"
                        "Common to use the lowest resolution possible for each image";
  
         is#dithering
          definition: "the addition of a small quantity of noise to the 
                       original analog signal before sampling",
          purpose: "improving the quality of digitised sound"(pm),
          requirement: "high sampling rates"(pm);
  
  
       is#sound_editing  //== Week 10 ==
        definition: "refining a sound file using various techniques",
        subtype: is#sound_trimming  is#combining  is#rearranging  is#sound_normalising 
                 is#fade-in  is#fade-out,
        tool: is#sound_editing_software;
  
         is#sound_trimming  subtype: is#trimming_silence  is#removing_unwanted_noise;
         is#sound_normalising  definition: "adjustment of volume levels";
  
       is#image_compression
        definition: "minimisation of file size",
        annotation: "redundancy reduction removes duplicate data",
        use: "to store or send them over a network",
        subtype: {is#lossy_image_compression  is#lossless_image_compression};
  
         is#lossy_image_compression
          annotation: "data lost -> greater compression ratios",
          technique: is#DCT_compression,  
          output: format#jpeg format#mpeg; 
          
           is#DCT_compression__Discrete_Cosine_Transform_compression__DCT
            annotation: "separates the high/low frequency information present in the image"
                        "DCT transforms an array of pixels to an array of coefficients,
                         which represent the amplitude of the frequency components (the
                         frequencies are derived from the brightness)",
            subtype: is#JPEG_compression;
  
         is#lossless_image_compression
          annotation: "no image data is lost: codes are stored in the hash table"
                      "stores values for pixels rather than every pixel value, 
                       e.g. it stores a count (of the pixels) and a colour value",
          technique: is#RLE_compression is#Huffman_compression is#LZW_compression,
          output: format#gif format#PNG;
  
           is#RLE_compression__Run-Length_Encoding_compression__RLE
            annotation: "works on any number of repeating characters"
                        "consists of two bytes, one for the character to be repeated 
                         and one for the number of repetitions";
  
       is#2D_image_editing__image_creation
        subtype: is#image_rasterization  is#image_scaling  is#image_manipulation;
    
         is#image_rasterization  annotation: "generating vectors from bitmap";
  
         is#image_scaling
          annotation: "display at a different resolution"
                      "each logical pixel is attributed several physical pixels
                       (similarly attributed if raster image)";
  
         is#image_manipulation
          definition: "use of filters and geometric transformations"
                      "adjustment either pixel by pixel, or in groups of pixels"
                      "use of filters and masks to manipulate large areas of the image
                       at a time",
          subtype: is#geometrical_image_transformation is#vector_graphics_manipulation;
  
            is#geometrical_image_transformation
             annotation: "when applied to bitmaps interpolation of the pixels is 
                          required which can cause loss of image quality",
             subtype: is#image_translation is#image_rotation is#image_resizing
                      is#image_clipping is#image_reflection is#image_shearing
                      is#Bézier_curve_application;
  
              is#image_resizing  annotation: "changes the size of the graphic",
               subtype: is#image_resampling is#image_downsampling;
  
                is#image_resampling
                 annotation: "changes the size of the graphic AND the resolution";
  
                is#image_downsampling
                 annotation: "reducing the size of an image by discarding pixels",
                 use: "used when an image has higher resolution than the intended 
                       output device";
  
              is#image_clipping  annotation: "describe at a different size";
  
              is#image_shearing__image_skewing  annotation: "distorts an object in an image";
  
              is#Bézier_curve_application
               annotation: "supported by nearly all drawing programs support Bézier"
                           "defined by mathematical formulas";
  
            is#vector_graphics_manipulation
             subtype: is#anti-aliasing  is#applying_a_Bézier_curve,
             object: is#vector_graphics;
  
              is#anti-aliasing
               definition: "a process of blurring sharp edges",
               origin: "invented at MIT's Media Lab to get rid of the jagged edges on lines",
               purpose: "give the impression of a smoother edge by using 
                         intermediate grey tones",
               use: "not for small text (below 12 points)";
  
  
       is#3D_image_editing__image_creation
        subtype: is#using_the_PN-triangle_algorithm  is#rendering  is#shading
                 is#texture_mapping,
        technique: is#3D_image_editing_algorithm;
  
         is#3D_image_editing_algorithm  supertype: #algorithm,
          subtype: is#PN-triangle_algorithm  is#radiosity
                   is#painter's_algorithm  is#binary_space_partitioning_tree  is#z-buffering;
  
           is#PN-triangle_algorithm
            annotation: "an algorithm generating high quality images with a 
                         small number of polygons";
  
           is#radiosity
            annotation: "a relatively new method"
                        "renders the reflections occurring between all the objects present"
                        "ray tracing with colours?";
  
           is#z-buffering 
            annotation: "the object with the lowest z-coordinate value is in front of the
                         other objects, and therefore that's the one that's displayed"
                        "takes time, uses a lot of memory";
  
         is#using_the_PN-triangle_algorithm
          technique: is#PN-triangle_algorithm;
  
         #rendering.drawing
          definition: "the process of filling in the polygons"
                      "the process of adding realism by adding shadows, colour and shade"
                      "the process of creating an image from a data file"
                      "the process of the calculation of the normals of the polygons",
          subtype: is#fast_rendering  is#ray_tracing  is#drawing_surfaces;
  
           is#fast_rendering
            use: "to obtain graphic images very quickly, not for final production",
            technique: "using wire_frame",
            annotation: "it disables surface mapping, polygon smoothing, and ray tracing";
  
           is#ray_tracing 
            annotation: "a long procedure, produces the best rendering quality"
                        "follows light rays through a scene"
                        "the renderer computes the surface colour, colours reflected in
                         the original surface combines with original colour"
                        "takes time => unsuitable for animations"
                        "creates realistic images with accurate shadows, highlights,
                         reflections, and special effects such as fog and lens flare"
                        "simulating the path of a single light ray - absorbed or reflected
                         by various objects in the image"
                        "the user must specify the light source such as intensity, 
                         colour... how reflective or absorbent the materials are";
  
           is#drawing_surfaces
            subtype: is#hidden_surface_removal,
            technique: is#painter's_algorithm  is#binary_space_partitioning_tree
                       is#z-buffering;
  
             is#hidden_surface_removal__HSR
              annotation: "a complex phase of the rendering process",
              use: "when an object overlaps the same pixel in another object within an image";
              
         is#shading  definition: "creating a real 3D shape from a 3D skeleton (wireframe)",
          subtype: is#flat_shading  is#Gouraud_shading  is#Phong_shading;
  
           is#flat_shading__facet_shading__facet_normal_shading__Lambert_shading
            annotation: "the light intensity is calculated at one point along the polygon
                         and is used to shade the entire face",
            technique: is#backface_culling; 
  
             is#backface_culling
              annotation: "to increase rendering speed, backfaces are removed";
  

            //is#wire_frame_rendering
            // annotation: "no surfaces in wire frames - no shading calculations??"
            // object:  is#wire frame  is#fast_wire_frame  is#hidden_wire_frame;
  
           is#Gouraud_shading__vertex_normal_shading
            annotation: "intensity interpolation gives polygonal surfaces a smoother finish"
                        "colour of each pixel is interpolated on each scan line inside the
                         polygon"  "The light intensity calculated at each vertix";
  
           is#Phong_shading__pixel-based_shading
            annotation: "computes the shading of each pixel drawn, not just every vertex"
                  "the intensity of the light is calculated at each pixel in the polygon"
                  "can be very accurate but also very slow";
        
         is#texture_mapping  use: "a popular way of adding surface details to 3D models",
          subtype: is#cylindrical_texture_mapping  is#spherical_texture_mapping  
                   is#tiledP-planar_texture_mapping,
          result: is#texture_map__surface_map;
  
  
    is#multimedia_development_process     //=== Multimedia Development Process (Week 11) ===
     agent: is#multimedia_development_process_agent,
     subtask: is#multimedia_development_process_subtask ;
  
      is#multimedia_development_process_subtask
       subtype: {is#multimedia_flowchart_planning  is#multimedia_prototype_production
                 is#multimedia_evaluation is#multimedia_production}
                {is#multimedia_deciding/assessing  is#multimedia_designing/planning
                 is#multimedia_developing  is#multimedia_implementing
                 is#multimedia_evaluating};  //this last set is an ordered set
  
      is#multimedia_deciding/assessing
       definition: "determining needs, goals and intended audience, feasibility & costing";
  
      is#multimedia_designing/planning
       definition: "determining content and sequence of the production, gathering staff
                    & defining hardware";
  
      is#multimedia_developing
       definition: "gathering and organizing multimedia materials and elements, producing
                    specifications for programmers";
  
      is#multimedia_implementing 
       definition: "programming, writing documentation, creating the product, installation";
  
      is#multimedia_evaluating
       definition: "evaluation of the product's effectiveness",
       subtype: is#multimedia_formative_evaluation is#multimedia_summative_evaluation;
  
        is#multimedia_formative_evaluation  annotation: "during the evaluation";
        is#multimedia_summative_evaluation  annotation: "at the end";
  
  
    is#animation  //==== Animation (Week 12) ====
     annotation: "an image that is designed to change over a period of time",
     agent: is#story_sketch_artist  is#computer_animator  is#layout_artist
            is#background_painter  is#effects_animator,
     subtype: {is#frame-based_animation  is#cel-based_animation} is#digital_animation; 
  
      is#frame-based_animation  definition: "drawing each frame carefully by hand";
  
      is#cel-based_animation
       origin: "evolved from frame-based animation techniques as a way to speed up
                the production",
       annotation: "cels are the building blocks of cartoons"
                   "requirement: keyframes (the first and last frames), then some
                    tweening is done to generate the intermadiary frames";
  
      is#digital_animation  
       annotation: "image frames can be captured directly into the computer via the
                    use of frame grabbing"
                   "with scanners and graphic software, individual cel images can be 
                    scanned and combined on screen using the layers within a graphic
                    program",
       subtype: is#2D_animation  is#3D_animation,
       subtask: is#digital_animation_subtask;
  
        is#digital_animation_subtask
         subtype: is#rotoscoping is#motion_capture;
  
          is#rotoscoping  annotation: "making special effects, frame by frame";
  
          is#motion_capture
           definition: "a means of converting the motion of an animal, a human or an 
                        object into a series of 2D or 3D coordinates within a computer";
  
        is#2D_animation
         tool: #pencil is#tracing_paper 
               is#2D_computer_animation_software is#3D_computer_animation_software,
         subtask: is#2D_animation_subtask;
  
          is#2D_animation_subtask
           subtype: {is#2D_animation_onion_skinning  is#pencil_sketching
                     is#frame-by-frame_creating_of_characters_and_objects
                     is#scanning_into_a_computer_to_add_colour_texture_and_motion
                     is#direct_creation_of_artwork_on_a_computer};
  
            is#2D_animation_onion_skinning 
             definition: "painting each frame over the top of another",
             object: is#framestack;
  
              is#framestack  supertype: #stack,
               annotation: "the series of images seen through the onion skin";
  
        is#3D_animation
         tool: is#3D_computer_animation_software,
         subtask: is#3D_animation_subtask,
         technique: is#3D_morphing  is#3D_warping  is#3D_go, //#kinematics is a domain
         object: is#3D_animation_pivot_point,
         parameter: is#frame_rate;
  
          is#3D_animation_subtask
           subtype: is#3D_animation_key_framing is#3D_modelling  is#3D_rendering
                    is#3D_animation_ghosting;
  
            is#3D_animation_key_framing
              annotation: "by activating the 'animate' button"
                          "restricted by the selected transformation and parameters";
  
            is#3D_animation_ghosting
             analogue: is#2D_animation_onion_skinning;
  
          is#3D_animation_pivot_point  supertype: #point,
           annotation: "all objects created in 3D space have pivot points, which act
                        as the anchor point of the object; then, links and chains must
                        be defined, to allow objects to move together";
  
          is#3D_morphing 
           annotation: "transition morphs, from one image to another";
  
          is#3D_warping
           annotation: "distortion morphs use one image"
                       "warping of prominent features such as positions or_colours";
  


Agents

is#multimedia_development_process_agent  supertype: #person,
 subtype: is#multimedia_project_manager  is#multimedia_content_expert  
          is#multimedia_programmer   is#instructional_designer 
          is#graphic_designer  is#audio_technician
          is#video_technician  is#multimedia_animator  
          is#multimedia_evaluator  is#multimedia_salesperson;

  is#multimedia_project_manager__multimedia_project_leader
   role: "must ensure that the product is finished on time, on budget, and in
          accordance with stated goals",
   agent of: "organising (primary responsibility for success of project)"
             "overseeing all stages" "managing relationships within team (a team process)"
             "communicating with clients and team members"  "scheduling / keeping on task"
             "adhering to copyright issues"  "negotiating with publisher/distributor";

  is#multimedia_content_expert__multimedia_content_author__multimedia_content_writer
   role: "defining the content included in the product, and are responsible for 
          the content accuracy and currency",
   agent of: "supplying accurate facts, graphics, videos, charts, etc."
             "supplying timely/current information"
             "preparing and writing of narration, text, etc"
             "identifying media and content needed to ensure the success of the product";
  
  is#multimedia_programmer__multimedia_software_designer
   role: "planning and writing software programs, and are responsible for ensuring that
          production and programming are accurate and on time",
   agent of: "planning (storyboards) and converting into computer code using 
              authoring system or computer language"
             "developing a prototype"
             "developing the final product (computer programs, multimedia scripts
              and Web pages)";

  is#instructional_designer__educational_designer__educational_programmer
   role: "ensuring that instructional content conforms to educational standards and is
          responsible for the inclusion of learning theories",
   agent of: "designing the instruction process when a product involves learning material"
             "instructional interface design"
             "inclusion of user-friendly navigation"
             "ensuring that the product will achieve objectives";

  is#graphic_designer__graphic_artist
   role: "creating or modifying graphics and art elements for the project and introduce
          creativity to the production process",
   agent of: "creating original art, graphics, videos etc."
             "modifying traditional art elements to multimedia format"
             "scanning or touching-up original / existing art elements"
             "designing layout and colour coordination";

  is#audio_technician__sound_technician__sound_engineer__audio_specialist
   role: "creating audio and sound effects, digitize audio files and create a consistent
          overall sound scheme for the project",
   agent of: "creating original music, voice and sound effects"
             "recording and editing of sound effects and voice-overs"
             "mixing music for the multimedia project"
             "modifying traditional audio elements to multimedia format"
             "maintaining compliance with copyright issues in regard to originality 
              of sound and music used";

  is#video_technician__video_specialist__video_designer
   role: "video editing and creating video and visual effects",
   agent of: "capturing video on camera"
             "recording and editing video footage"
             "editing and formatting the video: transitions, effects, overdubs, etc."
             "using video compression so that video is small enough for use in the 
              production without loss of quality";

  is#multimedia_animator__animation_technician__illustrator
   role: "using creative 2D/3D techniques to add visual impact and bringing life, depth
          and movement to a production, to characterize and animate scenes, using
          3D figures captured on film or computer generated images",
   agent of: "capturing 3D images on film"
             "editing and formatting animations"
             "drawing (images and storyboard elements)"
             "manipulating visual images or models while recording onto film, video
              or hard disc";

  is#multimedia_evaluator
   role: "testing the intermediary and final products for functionality, reliability 
          and usability; and whether the product achieved it's stated goals",
   agent of: "evaluating the usability of the product or prototype in a consistent and
              objective manner"
             "assessing the capacity of the product or prototype to be understood,
              learned, used and liked by the user"
             "checking for consistency and standards"
             "comparing benefits with expected benefits"
             "detection of faults and flaws in the product or prototype"
             "writing reports after testing";

  is#multimedia_salesperson
   agent of: "identifying marketing strategies and approaches"
             "creating effective sales meetings"
             "presenting clear goals in sales meetings";


Physical supports

 #signal 
  definition: "a time-dependent variation of a characteristic of a physical phenomenon",
  use: "describing how one parameter is related to another",
  subtype: {(is#continuous_signal  is#discrete_signal)};


  is#discrete_signal  subtype: is#digitised_signal;
  is#digitised_signal__digital_information supertype: #digital_communication;


#electromagnetic_spectrum  name: electromagnetic_waves;  //"waves", not "wave"


  #visible_spectrum name: visible_light,
   definition: "the rainbow lights/colors" "wavelengths between 380 nm and 750 nm",
   annotation: "red has the longest wavelength";



Data structures and Formats


#bit  definition: "the smallest element of digital data: 0 or 1",   //value: {0,1},
  name: binary_digit,
  use: "representing a boolean value";


#byte  part: 8 #bit;

#bits_per_second part: #bit #second;



#pixel
 subtype: {is#logical_pixel is#physical_pixel};

  is#logical_pixel  annotation: "stored pixel value";
  is#physical_pixel  annotation: "physical dot";

#computer_graphics  name: digital_image,
 subtype: {is#vector_graphics is#bitmap_graphic};

  is#vector_graphics annotation: "defined by mathematical objects" "resolution independent"
                                 "vectors define shapes as lines, curves, points"
                                 "generated by drawing programs";

  is#bitmap_graphic__raster_image 
   annotation: "resolution dependent" "jagged when magnified"
               "generated by most paint programs";


format#media_dependant_format
 subtype: {format#plain_text  format#video_format  format#audio_format
           format#text_and_images_format}
          {format#lossy_compression_format  format#lossless_compression_format};

  format#lossy_compression_format
   object of: is#lossy_image_compression,
   subtype: format#mp3 format#jpeg;

  format#lossless_compression_format
   object of: is#lossless_image_compression;

  format#plain_text__txt__text ;

  format#video_format
   subtype: {format#mpeg format#mpv2 format#avi format#qt};

    format#mpeg__mpg__mpe__mpv__vbs__mpegv__MPEG_video;
    format#mpv2__mp2v__MPEG2_video;
    format#avi__Microsoft_Video;
    format#qt__mov__moov__Quicktime_Video;

  format#audio_format
   subtype: {format#ra format#wav format#aif format#au format#mp3};

    format#ra__ram__RealAudio;
    format#wav__WAV_Audio  annotation: "Windows sound file format";
    format#aif__aiff__aifc__AIFF_Audio annotation: "Apple sound file format";
    format#au__snd__ULAW_Audio  annotation: "Unix/Sun audio file format";

    format#mp3__mp2__mpa__abs__mpga__mpega__MP3__MP2__MPEG_Audio
     annotation: "compressed digital audio" "MPEG I, Audio layer 3"
                 "MP3 files are the sound part of the MPEG video format"
                 "employs a lossy system which removes frequencies judged to be
                  essentially inaudible"
                 "can compress audio by a factor of 10:1 with very little 
                  degradation in quality",
     use: "a very popular way to store music",
     subtype: format#MP3_Pro;

  format#text_and_images_format  //see Computer Graphics (Week 05) for details
   subtype: {#HTML  format#xfig  format#pdf  format#fm  format#doc}
            {format#bitmap_format  format#vector_graphics_format}
            {format#xformat  format#xbm  format#ras };

    format#pdf__PDF__Portable_Document_Format
     origin: "Adobe ",
     use: "allows shapes to be defined in vector terms"
          "Supporting the correct or precise placement of characters";

    format#fm__doc__frm__frame__maker__Framemaker_format;
    format#doc__dot__Microsoft_Word_Document_format;

    format#xformat__xpixmap ;

    format#bitmap_format annotation: "need large storage space",
     subtype: {format#tiff format#tga format#bmp format#jpeg  format#gif format#png},
     object: #bitmap;

      format#tiff__tif__TIFF__Tag_Image_File_Format
       annotation: "used outside the WWW subtype"
                   "supported by most painting programs on all platforms";

      format#tga__TGA__Targa
       annotation: "used outside the WWW subtype"
                   "supports more than 256 colours on PCs",
       use: "has been widely used, use is declining";

      format#bmp__Windows_Bitmap;

      format#jpeg__jpe__jfif__pjpeg__pjp__JPEG__Joint_Photographic_Experts_Group
       annotation: "lossy compression: Discrete Cosine Transformation to turn the
                    square of data into a set of different size curves"
                   "supports millions of colours (16.7 million), not transparency",
       use: "good for photographs, 3-D images";

      format#gif__GIF__graphic_interchange_format
       origin: "developed by Compuserve",
       annotation: "compatibility between different platforms" "Lossless compression"
                   "supports only 256 colours" 
                   "supports transparency, interlacing, and animation",
       use: "Good for text-based images, line and clip art";

      format#png__PMG__Portable_Network_Graphics 
       origin: "created to replace the GIF format",
       annotation: "platform independent format"
                   "supports millions of colours, interlacing and transparency";

    format#vector_graphics_format
     annotation: "compact, scalable and resolution-independent"
                 "ideal for networked multimedia" "quality, easy to edit, efficient method",
     subtype: {format#pure_vector-based_format  format#composite_vector_and_bitmap_format};

      format#pure_vector-based_format 
       subtype: format#dxf,
       use: "popular in computer-aided design (CAD) such as the AutoCAD DXF format"
            "rare in 2D, widely used for three-dimensional (3D) models";

      format#composite_vector_and_bitmap_format__graphics_metafile_format
       annotation: "not just vector formats, Bitmaps can be incorporated",
       origin: "Macintosh PICT files and Microsoft's Windows Metafiles (WMF)",
       subtype: format#eps  format#swf  format#svg;

        format#eps__EPS__Encapsulated_PostScript
         origin: "PS (PostScript), developed by Adobe Systems in the mid 1980's",
         annotation: "a programming language with built-in graphics capabilities"
                     "a special graphics format to save vector-based graphics"
                     "EPS files maintain any embedded text as actual, editable text
                      instead of converting it to bitmapped pictures of text";

        format#svg__SVG__Scalable_Vector_Graphics  supertype:  pm#XML_based_language,
         origin: "PostScript ",
         use: "easier to implement and more compact for transmission over networks";

        format#swf__SWF__Shockwave_Flash_Format
         use: "developed for vector animations using Macromedia's Flash software";


Interfaces and Languages


#musical_instrument_digital_interface
 annotation: "synthesised (synthetically generated)"
             "does not contain any audio information"
             "standard for synthesisers and electronic instruments and devices",
 advantage: "since it contains only instructions (notes), MIDI files can be extremely 
             small, up to 1,000 times smaller than CD audio, hence low bandwidth 
             requirement and high quality"
            "sounds produced by hardware therefore low system costs"
            "scaleable, editable & cross-platform"
            "supported by all the most popular Internet browsers and OSs",
 disadvantage: "cannot store 'real world' sounds (e.g. songs), only tunes",
 origin: "the General MIDI standard (GM) was developed to enumerate 128 standard sounds 
          and their associated presets";


Tools

is#multimedia_tool  supertype: pm#tool,
 subtype: {is#multimedia_hardware is#multimedia_software};

Hardware peripherals

is#multimedia_hardware   supertype: #computer_hardware,
 subtype: is#multimedia_computer  is#CD/DVD_drive  is#graphics_tablet  
          is#audio/video_capture_card is#graphic_adapter_card;

  is#multimedia_computer 
   subtype: is#multimedia_PC,
   requirement: "large amounts of disk space and memory"
                "fast processors and fast data buses and powerful graphic cards",
   part: is#CD/DVD_drive  #digital_scanner  is#digital_camera  #loudspeaker_system
         is#graphics_tablet  is#graphic_adapter_card
         is#audio/video_capture_card; //sound_cards  CD-ROM


    is#CD_land supertype: pm#flat_thing;

    #compact_disk
     annotation: "represent data (audio, graphics and programs) as a series of pits"
                 "the laser of the CD drive picks out the bit patterns, spiralling out 
                  from the centre"
                 "typical CDs can hold about 650 Mb in data mode, and 800 Mb in music mode",
     part: is#CD_pit is#CD_land, //1 pit= 1 bit
     subtype: is#DVD, //already: #audio_CD #CD-R  #CD-ROM
     part of: is#CD/DVD_drive;


      is#DVD__digital_versatile_disk
       annotation: "similar to a CD but has a much larger data capacity"
                   "holds about 4.7 Gb bytes, 7.5 times more data than a CD"
                   "the lands are much smaller than on a CD; narrower tracks:
                    0.74 microns (1.6 microns for a CD); minimum pit length is reduced;
                    different data encoding (fewer bits are wasted)";

      #audio_CD  name: CD-DA;

  is#digital_camera supertype: is#photographic_camera,
   subtype: is#digital_still_camera  is#digital_video_camera;

  is#graphic_adapter_card
   subtype: is#monochrome_display_adapter__MDA  is#Hercules_graphics_card
            is#colour_graphics_adapter__CGA  is#enhanced_graphics_adapter__EGA
            is#video_graphics_adapter;

    is#video_graphics_adapter__VGA
     subtype: is#super-VGA,
     origin: "Developed by IBM",
     annotation: "uses analog signals rather than digital signals"
                 "most video cards today support the original VGA modes, for compatibility"
                 "supports 16 colours at 640x480, or 256 colours at 320x200"
                 "Colours are from a palette of 262,144 colours (not 16.7 million)"
                 "VGA uses 6 bits (instead of 8) to specify each colour";

      is#super-VGA__SVGA
       annotation: "supports 16 million colours",
       origin:"developed by a consortium of monitor and graphics manufacturers called VESA";

  #digital_scanner  annotation: "a row of Charge Coupled Devices (CCD)",
    part: is#charge_coupled_device,
    subtype: is#hand-held_scanner  is#flatbed_scanner;

     is#light_detector supertype: #sensor;
     is#charge_coupled_device__CCD  supertype: is#light_detector,
      annotation: "resolutions: horizontally by how close the CCDs are together,
                     vertically by how slowly the light bar passes;
                     in grey scale, measuring the amount of light falling on them;
                     in colour, with red, green and blue filters"
                  "hand-held scanners are cheaper but it is difficult to join the
                     scanned parts seamlessly";

Multimedia softwares

is#multimedia_software  supertype: #software,
 subtype: is#image_editing_painting_and_drawing_program 
          is#text_editing_and_layout_program
          is#capture_editing_and_effects_programs_for_video
          is#sound_editing_software   is#MIDI_program  is#animation_software;

  is#image_editing_painting_and_drawing_program
   subtype: is#Adobe_Photoshop  is#Illustrator  is#Macromedia_Director_MX;

    is#Macromedia_Director_MX
     abbreviation: Director;
   //input: Lingo#scripting_language;  //Lingo is detailed in another file

  is#text_editing_and_layout_program
   subtype: is#MS_word  is#Adobe_Pagemaker  is#Quark_Express  is#Macromedia_Director_MX;

  is#capture_editing_and_effects_programs_for_video
   subtype: is#Adobe_Premiere is#AfterEffect is#Strata_Videoshop is#Macromedia_Director_MX;

  is#sound_editing_software
   subtype: is#recording_editing_effects_programs_for_audio  is#Cool_Edit;

    is#recording_editing_effects_programs_for_audio
     subtype: is#Sound_Forge  is#SoundEdit16  is#Macromedia_Director_MX;

  is#animation_software
   subtype: is#2D_computer_animation_software  is#3D_computer_animation_software;

    is#2D_computer_animation_software
     subtype: is#Animo  is#Toonz  is#Macromedia_Shockwave  is#PEGS  is#USanimation;

    is#3D_computer_animation_software
     subtype: is#Macromedia_Director  is#Macromedia_Flash  is#Macromedia_Shockwave
              is#3D_Studio_Max  is#Maya  is#SoftImage3D  is#Lightwave;

      is#Macromedia_Flash
       annotation: "support of: is#vector_graphics  is#imaging_effects"
                   "vector animation organised using a timeline for the animation,
                    permitting easing in (acceleration) and easing out (deceleration)
                    of objects";